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By 1595, the Timucuan population had shrunk by 75%, primarily from epidemics of new infectious diseases introduced by contact with Europeans, and war.

By 1700, the Timucuan population had been reduced to just 1000.

The French followed the Saturiwa in this usage, but the Spanish applied the term "Timucua" much more widely to groups within a wide section of interior North Florida.

In the 16th century they designated the area north of the Santa Fe River between the St.

The pre-Columbian era was marked by regular, routine, and probably small tribal wars with neighbors.

The Timucua were organized into as many as 35 chiefdoms, each of which had hundreds of people in assorted villages within its purview.

By 1595, their population was estimated to have been reduced from 200,000 to 50,000 and thirteen chiefdoms remained.

By 1700, the population of the tribe had been reduced to 1000.

From here, Spanish missionaries established missions in each main town of the Timucuan chiefdoms, including the Santa Isabel de Utinahica mission in what is now southern Georgia, for the Utinahica.While alliances and confederacies arose between the chiefdoms from time to time, the Timucua were never organized into a single political unit.The people suffered severely from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity.Warfare against them by the English colonists and native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century.The word "Timucuan" may derive from "Thimogona" or "Tymangoua", an exonym used by the Saturiwa chiefdom of present-day Jacksonville for their enemies, the Utina, who lived inland along the St. Both groups spoke dialects of the Timucua language.

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If so, Timucuan contact with that particular expedition was unlikely.