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Paul and Augustine, and he argued that it remained an essential component in the church’s discursive armoury against heresy. “Religious Authority and Dissent.” In Peter Brown, ed. Combining traditional approaches with innovative thinking on moral philosophy, devotional exercises, and theological doctrine, Pecock’s works of religious instruction are his attempt to reform a Christian community threatened by heresy through reshaping meaningful Christian practices and forms of belief. Chaucer realizes the self-promotional value in identifying with an emergent interpretive community of English translators, inclusive of the Wycliffites and Trevisa. Cole connects ecclesiastical interest in early humanism to changes in theological discourse during the fifteenth century, and hence to the bishops’ perception of Wycliffism.] —.”Staging Advice in Oxford, New College, MS 288: On Thomas Chaundler and Thomas Bekynton.” Gillespie and Ghosh 245-263. “Beyond Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy: A New Approach to Late Medieval Religious Reading.” Corbellini 33-54. “Il Discorso della montagna nella Biblia wycliffita e nel N. He appealed to the centuries-old position of the canonists that an heretical or simoniacal pope could be tried and deposed, but he so broadened the definition of heresy and simony as to make all but the most saintly popes liable to removal. [Levy studies the expanding notion of the literal sense of scripture in the later Middle Ages, especially its identification with the sense intended by its divine author, in the writings of five fourteenth- and fifteenth-century theologians: Richard Fitz Ralph, John Wyclif, Henry Totting de Oyta, Jean Gerson, and Paul of Burgos.] —. “The Doctrine of Transubstantiation from Berengar through the Council of Trent.” new ser. The author argues that in these devotional works (which appealed to a broad readership in late medieval England) Rolle successfully refines traditional affective strategies to develop an implied reader-identity, the individual soul seeking the love of God, which empowers each and every reader in his or her own spiritual journey.”] Mc Neill, John Thomas. Differences between heretic and orthodox believers; Factors attributed to the existence of heretics in the nation; Citation of vernacular books on heresy practices.”] Mc Veigh, T. “Chaucer’s Portraits of the Pardoner and Summoner and Wycliff’s 29 (1975): 54-58. “Die Sprache der Wyclif-Bibel: die Verwendung von Lehnwörtern in den Büchern Baruch, Richter und Hiob.” Diss. The plays take up a series of contests over who could legitimately determine the meaning of texts–men or women, clerics or laity, rulers or subjects, Christians or Jews–and transform these questions for audiences far beyond their original medieval academic contexts. “On the Trail of Wycliffite Discourse: Notes on the Relationship Between Language Use and Identity in the Wycliffite Sect.” . Phillips pays especial attention to Wycliffite and political registers in the . “The Social and Economic Spread of Rural Lollardy: A Reappraisal.” Sheils and Wood, 111-129. “The Social and Economic Status of Later Lollards.” Spufford 103-31. I will explore this ideological conflict through close readings of both Wycliffite texts and of the orthodox texts that responded to Wycliffism.”] Ransom, M.

In addition to Wycliffite sermons, the essay analyzes works by Reginald Pecock and Nicholas Love’s Mirror.] Bostick, Curtis V. For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. Lord Cobham or John Castle, the leader of the Lollard rebellion and friend of the young Prince Henry, the fictional character of Falstaff pricks the prince’s conscience about his family’s theft of the crown. My primary concern shall be to show how this treatise can be considered as an important laboratory where Wyclif tests the concepts he was working on.”] —. ] Whethamstede’s poem shows how in England the two Latin styles could work together in opposing the dissident tradition of vernacular theology, as represented in the lollard movement” (21-2). “William Langland and the Invention of Lollardy.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 37-58. “Money and the Plow, Or the Shipman’s Tale of Tithing.” 49.4 (2015): 449-73. [From the abstract: “This dissertation studies the House of Fame in light of its intellectual context and its social and literary milieu. In Boethius’s and Wyclif’s defense of universals, the themes and concerns of their work align closely with those of Chaucer, in particular in his emphasis on the connection that exists between word and deed, between language and reality. Of the three so-called “Lollard” commentaries on the Pater Noster, one–the longer of the two in Arnold–“combines radically Lollard complaints,” but “a close look at the text reveals its strong connection to the existing commentary tradition, not only in terms of its ideas, but also in terms of its vocabulary and phrasing. Victor in the twelfth century, between literal and spiritual senses of scripture. The prebendary, one of four benefices held by Wycliffe in his life, is controversial because the economic benefit he derived from it seems to conflict with Wycliffe’s reputation as a critic of the Catholic Church. Analysis of scribal revision, along with a new critical edition that records variation across all seven manuscripts, shows that most scribes copied the text without concern over its Lollard affiliation. 2, contains a discussion of Oxford, with a brief mention of Wyclif.

This bibliography is intended to embrace all fields relevant to Lollard studies. Swinderby’s links with early Wycliffism are elucidated and the relationship between Wycliffism and the Church is looked at in a new light.”] —. [Fudge examines the ideas rather than the history of the Hussite movement, arguing that it is the “First Reformation,” distinct from the movements begun by Wyclif or Luther, in order to “close the gap between a history of ideas and social history” (3).] —. [Observing that scholarship on Lollard texts – even from literary scholars – focuses almost exclusively on cultural and theological content rather than aesthetics, Gayk argues for more attention to the form of Lollard writings. “Ecclesiastics and Political Theory in Late Medieval England: The End of a Monopoly.” Dobson 23-44. “The Dissemination of Manuscripts Relating to English Political Thought in the Fourteenth Century.” . [From the publisher: “This book charts the emergence of women’s writing from the procedures of heresy trials and recovers a tradition of women’s trial narratives from the late Middle Ages to the seventeenth century. At the center of Wyclif’s theology there is always a Living Person.] —. She traces the story of the literature of complaint from the earliest written bills and their links with early complaint poems in English, French, and Latin, through writings associated with political crises of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, to the libels and petitionary pamphlets of Reformation England. His heresy was assumed to be not simply a dereliction of his duties towards his church, but a dereliction of the demands of his class” (56).] Schaff, D. [“The purpose of this brief note is to suggest that the influence of the English religious reformer Wycliffe might be discerned in the First Lithuanian Catechism. [According to Shagan, “This study of popular responses to the English Reformation analyzes how ordinary people received, interpreted, debated, and responded to religious change. [This is a preliminary study of the Acta of Jerome’s trial, which is “the only source for learning about the Reformist activities not only of this Wycliffite, but also of his radical circle in the years 1409-14” (324), of which there seem to exist separate collections. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper attempts a preliminary assessment of that judgment and argues that, pending further study, we have no reason to accept it.

It therefore includes texts and studies about the literary, historical, cultural, and religious milieu of Lollardy as well as texts specifically about the heresy itself. [Birgitta was canonized in 1391 when the Lollard movement was heating up, but the paper mostly concerns the defenses of Birgitta by Mathias of Linköping and Alfonso of Jaén.] Emblom, Margaret. [This study is especially interesting for the detailed descriptions it gives of women and the reading communities they belonged to. “Lollardy and Late Medieval History.” Bose and Hornbeck 121-134. “Žižka’s Drum: The Political Uses of Popular Religion.” . With reference to select sermons, the Lanterne of Liȝt, and the trial of John Falks, the essay explores the potential for “new formalism” to complement and enrich the historical study of Lollardy.] Gellrich, Jesse. Analyzing the interrogations of Margery Kempe, Anne Askew, Marian Protestant women, Margaret Clitherow, and Quakers Katherine Evans and Sarah Cheevers, the book examines the complex dynamics of women’s writing, preaching, and authorship under separate regimes of religious persecution and censorship.”] —. [According to the abstract, this study “tells the story of early modern women’s preaching: how it was suppressed, and the unexpected places where it broke out. [“A governing argument of this chapter will be that the spheres of academic speculation and extra-mural religiosity across a range of social classes affected each other in ways that disable” a traditional polarity between what have been term an academic “Wycliffism” and a popular “lollardy” outside of the university. “Wycliffite ‘Affiliations’: Some Intellectual-Historical Perspectives.” Bose and Hornbeck 13-32. “Texts for a Poor Church: John Wyclif and the Decretals.” 20.1 (Feb. [This article focuses on papal decretals and English religious reformer John Wyclif’s views on it. A final chapter, which includes analyses of works by Chaucer, Hoccleve, and related writers, proposes far-reaching revisions to current histories of the arts of composition in medieval England.”] Scattergood, V. (on 50-54) in which Cole, dating the text to the mid- to late 1380s, argues that it comprises part of the contemporary re-invention of lollardy. Probably direct influence cannot be proven, but at least there is a striking parallelism between Martynas Mažvydas and John Wycliffe in the rendering of the Decalogue.” Schmalsteig examines this parallelism via a linguistic analysis.] Schofield, A. It differs from other studies by arguing that the subject cannot be understood simply by asking theological questions about people’s beliefs, but must be understood by asking political questions about how they negotiated with state power. Šmahel gives an annotated list of the various earliest manuscripts of official . It is certainly true that Wyclif is extremely vocal and insistent about his realism, but it is not obvious that the actual content of his view is especially extreme. “Penances Imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham 1511-12.” Aston and Richmond 229-249.

“The Problem of Poverty and Literacy: 66 (1975): 5-23. “Of grace and gross bodies: Falstaff, Oldcastle, and the fires of reform.” Ph. Beckwith frames her study with discussions of twentieth-century manifestations of sacramental theater in Barry Unsworth’s novel , and the connections between contemporary revivals of the York Corpus Christi plays and England’s heritage culture.”] Bennett, H. “The Production and Dissemination of Vernacular Manuscripts in the Fifteenth Century.” 4 (2000): 239-51. It will appear that in his analysis of the only sacrament which is a “social act“ in the literal sense of the expression, Wyclif (i) clearly acknowledges the central role of individual intentions behind (linguistic) conventions, and (ii) carefully distinguishes between the different, chronologically disparate acts involved in marriage and their respective (semantic, psychological and factual) felicity conditions.”] Chadwick, Dorothy. His chronicles provide crucial evidence for Wycliffism. This policy ultimately failed, and was replaced with more direct action which saw several key heretics [including Thomas Bilney] handed over for burning.”] —. Davis highlights Wykeham’s extraordinarily commitment to good governance and his extensive involvement in English politics between . The moral revolution of the Church that Hus called for in his day finds a clear echo in Vatican II’s . “The Early Fourteenth-Century Context for the Doctrine of Divine Foreknowledge in Wyclif’s Latin Sermons.” . Those ties to Wyclif may have kept the poem from being published previously, but the author believes that the poem’s obscure northern dialect of Middle English is more likely to blame.] Haines, R. “‘Wilde Wittes and Wilfulnes’: John Swetstock’s Attack on those ‘poyswunmongeres,’ the Lollards.” . Within this holy fellowship there would be a place for the papacy, but it would no longer resemble the monarchy it had ascended to in the later Middle Ages. “‘Oonly consent of love is sufficient for matrimonie’: Translating John Wyclif’s Word of the Mind.” In , ed. I argue that translation is also subversive because it challenges the claim to an ‘original’ and to an ‘origin.'” Ng therefore examines defenses of translation in the General Prologue (though she also refers to Trevisa) and Tyndale to describe “the narrative about a newly developing relation between a Christian believer and (translated) text.”] Nichols, Ann Eljenholm. ‘silently guides the reader towards a certain reception'” (5). “The Franciscans and their Books: Lollard Accusations and the Franciscan Response.” Hudson and Wilks 364-84.

[Bergs conducts three case studies in Middle English sociolinguistics to test the applicability of Lesley Milroy’s (1987) concept of social network to historical data analysis. Clark has also published a translation of Walsingham’s . [The book demonstrates that the theatrum repudiated by medieval clerics was not “theater” as we understand the term today. [Crassons focuses on the period after the plague, when theological and social conceptions shifted to consider poverty as “a symptom of idleness and other sins” rather than a sign of virtue, as had been the case in the thirteenth-century wake of the fraternal orders (5). “Discarding Traditional Pastoral Ethics: Wycliffism and Slander.” Bose and Hornbeck 227-242. “Heresy Hunting and Clerical Reform: William Warham, John Colet, and the Lollards of Kent, 1511–12.” . [“Wykeham’s administrative talents ensured that he became bishop of Winchester, holder of one of the richest sees in Christendom and Chancellor of England under Edward III and Richard II. Louvain–la-Neuve: Fédération Internationale des Institutes d’Etudes Médiévales, 1998. Instead, the pope would relate to his fellow bishops as St. His fellow Christians would recognize this man as their true pope, for he would be the person most closely resembling the apostolic martyrs and thus prove a genuine disciple of Christ. “Books for Laymen, The Demise of a Commonplace: Lollard Texts and the Justification of Images as a Continuity of Belief and Polemic.” 56.4 (1987): 457-73. [Peikola begins by noting that Lollard writers frequently “opt for a collective and atemporal mode of discourse” as opposed to a discourse which is self-consciously personal or historically situated. Investigating 127 manuscripts of the Bible, he attends to running headers, initials, and especially ruling patterns to “establish whether any such groupings of manuscripts emerge which could provide a starting point for further and more detailed case studies of book productions involving the Wycliffite Bible” (51).] —. finds that finds a mature alternative to Genevan theology existed by the reign of Mary Tudor, led by of a core of ‘freewill men’ who, in Lollard fashion, looked to the scriptures in English for their beliefs, rather than to the new ecclesiastical establishment and state officialdom.”] Peschke, Erhard. New York: Augustinian Historical Institute, 1961-66.

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“Reginald Pecock’s Vernacular Voice.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 217-236. The article, then, concentrates “on examining more fully the methodological implications of Netter’s commitment to a fully contextualized reading of his patristic authorities” (234). Chapter three analyzes Pecock’s position on the controversial issue of lay Bible reading, highlighting his efforts to draw readers away from the Lollard textual community into a new community structured around the authoritative book of reason. “‘Iusti sunt omnia’: Note a margine del ‘De statu innocencie’ di John Wyclif.” (c. Here Wyclif paints the features of man in the Edenic state, connecting them to some remarkable themes concerning nature, dominion, grace and free will. [This essay, a contribution to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy,” argues that Langland engages with “lollard” genres in order to think through critiques of theoretical poverty. More broadly, however, he argues that study of ecclesiastical humanism raises questions about the relevance of “the Wycliffite paradigm” in the latter half of the fifteenth century.] Coleman, Janet. [“The article focuses on the poem “Saint Erkenwald” . Additionally, it presents the discovery of a sarcophagus containing an inexplicably preserved corpse. [Levy describes Wyclif’s views on the authority of scripture, the nature of the literal sense, and the relationship between personal piety and exegesis as typical of late medieval theologians. She situates medieval drama, therefore, both in its vernacular literary setting, as a genre composed against the same cultural background as is a study of the interpretation of the Bible in the late Middle Ages. [A detailed discussion that starts with Biblical scholarship, and moves to ways in which biblical knowledge was disseminated to the laity during the century, including the Wycliffite translation along with private devotions and sermons. [Otto discusses how Giles of Rome and John Wyclif developed Augustine’s ecclesiology, especially ideas from City of God, into two contrasting arguments about the institutional church’s authority.] Overstreet, Samuel A. “‘Antichrist’ bei Wyclif.” Patschovsky and Šmahel 83-98. and Wycliffite writings in light of Langland’s B-C revisions. [Abstract:” This article examines the contents and manuscript contexts of the Lollard treatise ‘A Schort Reule of Lif’ to show how Lollards participated in mainstream religious trends and more orthodox Christians utilized a Lollard text that appealed to their common interests.